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菲律賓毒品戰爭:有多少人死亡? (中文-英文)

2019-12-24 11:30

 

Philippines drug war: Do we know how many have died?

(Source: Pixabay)

菲律賓反毒運動的新負責人Leni Robredo表示,“殺害無辜者”的舉動必須結束,她指的是人權團體指責政府數以千計的殺人事件之政府政策。

The new head of the anti-drug campaign in the Philippines, Leni Robredo, has said the "killing of the innocent" must come to an end, referring to a government policy human rights groups have blamed for thousands of state-sponsored killings.

 

她是總統Rodrigo Duterte的主要反對黨人物和批評者,但她也是在菲律賓直接當選的該國副總統。

She is a leading opposition figure and vocal critic of President Rodrigo Duterte but she is also the country's vice-president - a directly elected position in the Philippines.

 

Duterte一直以來受到越來越多的批評,被指責對非法藥物銷售和使用上所實施的嚴厲打擊。Robredo女士在稱他的毒品政策“顯然沒有奏效”之後激怒了他,因此任命了Robredo女士。

Mr. Duterte has been facing growing criticism of his controversial crackdown on illegal drug sales and use and has appointed Ms. Robredo after she angered him by saying his drug policy "obviously wasn't working".

 

總統Duterte怎麼說?

What has President Duterte said?

 

在2016年當選總統後,總統發起了打擊“非法毒品人物”的強硬運動,聲稱菲律賓已成為“毒品國家”。

After his election in 2016, the president launched a hard-line campaign against "illegal drug personalities", claiming the Philippines had become a "narco-state".

 

總統發言人Salvador Panelo告訴英國廣播公司:“政府不想殺人-這不是本意。”

The president's spokesman, Salvador Panelo, told BBC News: "The government does not want to kill - it is not the intention."

 

然而,總統本人曾表示,他將親自奪走數百萬吸毒者的生命,並且有報導稱,當地警察已將死亡人數作為目標。

However, the president himself has said he would personally take the lives of millions of drug users and there have been reports local police forces have been given targets to meet in terms of the number of deaths.

 

國際特赦組織等人權組織稱該政策為“大規模謀殺公司”,並說警察和民警正在積極瞄準可疑的吸毒者。

Human rights groups such as Amnesty International have called the policy a "large-scale murdering enterprise" and say the police and vigilantes are proactively targeting suspected drug users.

 

有多少人死亡?

How many have died?

 

關於死亡人數,已經產生了很多輿論,警察官員,政府和人權團體紛紛提出了相左的主張。

There has been a great deal of debate about the death toll, with competing claims made by police officials, the government and human rights groups.

 

聯合國和國際刑事法院(ICC)目前正在分別對此進行調查。

Separate investigations are currently being carried out by the United Nations and the International Criminal Court (ICC).

 

聯合國正在調查法外處決的問題,國際刑事法院正在對總統涉嫌危害人權進行初步調查。

The UN is looking into the issue of extrajudicial killings and the ICC is conducting preliminary investigations into the president for alleged crimes against humanity.

 

官方表示,警察說他們僅出於自衛而殺人,例如在販毒行動中的正當防衛。

Officially, the police say they kill only in self-defense - for example, during drug-bust operations.

 

2017年,政府發起了一場運動,以#RealNumbersPH為標題,揭示了真實死亡人數。

In 2017, the government launched a campaign to reveal what it said were the true numbers of deaths, under the banner #RealNumbersPH.

 

其最新數據發佈於2019年6月,5,526名“毒品人物”身亡。

Its latest figure, published in June 2019, was 5,526 deaths of "drug personalities".

 

然而,前警察局局長在同月公開宣布死亡人數為6,700。

However, the former police chief, in the same month, publicly put the number of deaths at 6,700.

 

當談到兩個數字之間的差異時,總統發言人說這可能是“無意的錯誤”。

When pressed on the discrepancy between the two numbers, the president's spokesman said it could have been an "unintentional mistake".

 

但是,這些數字不包括據說是總統的私刑執法人員所實施與毒品有關的殺害。

These numbers, however, don't include the drug-related killings allegedly being carried out by vigilantes inspired by the president's anti-drug rhetoric.

 

該國人權委員會(CHR)於2018年12月估計,毒品戰爭的殺害次數可能高達27,000起。

In December 2018, the country's Commission on Human Rights (CHR) estimated the number of drug-war killings could be as high as 27,000.

 

此外,還有另一組死亡人數(稱為“正在調查的死亡”)造成的進一步混亂狀況。

There is further confusion around another death toll, known as "deaths under investigation" (DUI).

 

在2019年3月,警察告訴當地媒體,這一數字超過了29,000,並且已經包括在政府關於“毒品戰爭”的官方報告中。

In March 2019, the police told local media this figure was over 29,000 - and this has been included in the government's official reports on the "war on drugs".

 

那麼這些可以歸類為與毒品有關的殺害嗎?

So can these be classified as drug-related killings?

 

本地媒體Rappler表示,DUI的數字是警方“對戰爭中死亡人數進行分類的方式,警察無法解釋他們不在“合法警察行動”之內的行為。””。

Rappler, a local media outlet, says the DUI figure is the police's "way of categorizing deaths in the war on drugs that police officials could not explain because they were outside 'legitimate police operations'".

 

人權委員會的Karen Gomez告訴英國廣播公司(BBC News),在2019年8月,數量的增加已成為“嚴重關切的原因”,地區警察局正在阻止或延遲信息的散布。

And Karen Gomez, of the Commission on Human Rights, told BBC News, in August 2019, the growing number had become a "cause of serious concern" and regional police stations were blocking or delaying the release of information.

 

Duterte先生一直鼓勵菲律賓人去殺毒癮者,並且有治安警察團體殺害可疑吸毒者的報導。

Mr. Duterte has encouraged Filipinos to go and kill drug addicts and reports of vigilante groups killing suspected drug users have been well documented.

 

2018年,總統告訴民眾他在任期間犯下的“唯一罪”是“法外殺戮”。

In 2018, the president told an audience the "only sin" he had committed in his time in office was the "extrajudicial killings".

 

人權組織說,警察主要針對貧困社區,將嫌犯列入當地社區領導者所編制的“毒品清單”。

Human-rights groups say the police have targeted mostly poor communities, putting suspects on "drug lists" compiled by local community leaders.

 

負責將官方報告提交給菲律賓侵犯人權指控的聯合國負責人Michelle Bachelet表示,即使政府的官方死亡人數也會是“任何國家最嚴重關注的問題”。

Michelle Bachelet, the UN chief tasked with delivering the official report into allegations of human-rights abuses in the Philippines, has said even the government's official death toll would be "a matter of most serious concern for any country".

 

Robredo女士承諾將採取基於健康的方法,她說:“我們將改變衡量標準,而不是改變死亡人數,而是改變那些生活已經改善的人數。”

Promising to take a health-based approach, Ms. Robredo says: "We will change the metrics, not on the number of deaths but by those number of lives being changed for the better."

 

來源:英國廣播公司

Source: BBC 

 

 

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